Belt mistracking occurs when the conveyor belt is no longer aligned in its original or recommended position on the conveyor structure.This causes the edge of the conveyor belt to rub against surrounding components and structure and become damaged.If that is the case, then you should take all actions possible to make sure you clear out the material from the conveyor belt to ensure that it is operational and not going to cause you any more problems in the future. 
Tracking a belt should be a methodical process.How mistracking belts can be corrected simply and economically, improving productivity by reducing unscheduled stoppages and maintenace costs, prevent the need for rather cumbersome"trial and error"process of identifying the root causes.

Common Causes of Belt Mistracking
A reason why a belt does not track right, is always related to a deformation of the belt or a skewed idler station or pulley.All of the traits listed below could be reason of mistracking:

Idler Fouling
Material build-up around the idlers may result in the belt being steered off centre,running to one side and contacting other components along the conveyor

Idler Roating
If idlers cease running or become jammed, the stationary roller may act as a brake on that part of the belt.This can cause the belt to run off to one side and mistrack

Uneven Discharge
As the belt drifts to either side of the head pulley, the belt cleaners do not properly clean the entire surface,causing excessive carryback.Material collects on the pulleys and structure, fouling the return side of the belt, resulting in slippage,lost product and other negative effects.

Off-Centre At Head Or Tail Pulley
This type of drift can lead to a fast-moving belt coming in contact with the conveyor stringer structure.There is also a chance of splice failure, whichpu ts the entire system in jeopardy of the fast moving belt detaching.

Uneven Loading
If the belt path leading from the tail pulley into the loading zone is uneven,the cargo can be loaded off-centre and cause excessive spillage.

Mistracked belt can lead to any of these potential problems
Belt ripped,torn or damage
If the belt has rips,holes or any sort of structural damage to the belt carcass,the belt may no longer be straight.This can also cause the belt to catch on idlers  or other parts of the conveyor causing the belt to tun off centre.

Missing Materials
A mistracked belt not onlu runs the risk of losing width and reducing the amount of material it can carry; it also poses a threat to spill material onto the area around it.

Safey Problems
Probably an indication that the belt is rubbing on the conveyor frame at some point , degrading the edge, reducing the usable width and increasing the chance of a fire.

Structures Damage
Not only can this friction damage the belt, it can also lead to significant damage to the structure where the mistracked belt is contacting it.

How to prevent belt mistracking
Tracking Rollers
Usually fitted on the return run of the conveyor belt, tracking rollers assist in keeping the belt aligned and centred on the conveyor system.It is also possible for tracking rollers to be fitted on the carry side of the conveyor belt.

Cleaning Belts
Keep material from building up on return rollers by cleaning belts properly

Conveyor frame
If your conveyor frame is crooked or slanted, it could be misguiding your belt. Check your framework from all angles to ensure the frame is level and square.

Impact Rollers
These rollers create more tension in your belt and make contact with every pulley in the system. Tenison is crucial to tracking, so your impact rollers should align with your frame and apply enough tension to the belt.

Keep the Idlers Running Smoothly
The conveyor belt's return idlers can become dirty, frozen or incorrectly aligned over time due to improper installation or natural wear, tear and motion. These parts should be cleaned regularly, and their alignment should be checked.

Keep Documentation
Make a note of any repairs you perform, and write down the state of your parts regularly in a conveyor belt plan. If a more significant problem comes up, you could access these notes to see repairs you've made in the past, and if the state of your belt showed failure over time.

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